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All You Need to Know About Small Business Basic Accounting

All You Need to Know About Small Business Basic Accounting


Small business basic accounting and correct bookkeeping is essential and it entails keeping meticulous records of a company’s financial operations, including assets, liabilities, sales, and expenses. Inaccuracies in bookkeeping are more common in small businesses.

The three types of accounting reports that bookkeepers use most frequently are the cash flow statement, income statement, and balance sheet. Each report’s various figures provide a unique viewpoint on the company’s financial situation. Following is a discussion of the differences between these reports.

“Small business basic accounting and correct bookkeeping is essential and it entails keeping meticulous records of a company’s financial operations, including assets, liabilities, sales, and expenses.”

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What is a cash flow statement?

Cash flow statements are used to provide a summary of the amount of money coming into and going out of a business. In these statements, the emphasis is placed solely on liquid assets such as cash and cash equivalents, which are investments that may quickly be converted into cash by individuals.

Accountants make modifications to the income statement of a company in order to determine cash flow for the company. Bookkeepers take non-cash goods and transactions and deduct them from the company’s net income through addition and subtraction. The three components that make up a cash flow statement are investing activities, operating activities, and financing activities.

Investing activities

Investments can take several forms, such as the sale or purchase of assets, the provision of loans to suppliers, or payments connected to the acquisition or merger of businesses.

Operating activities

The generation of cash and its subsequent expenditure is an essential part of operating activities. The receipt of money from the sale of products, payments made to suppliers, interest earned on bank accounts, and the payment of wages to workers are all considered to be operating activities of businesses.

Financing activities

Operations that generate cash or spend cash to fund the organization are referred to as financing activities. Examples of financing activities include paying cash dividends to shareholders, receiving cash from paying down debt, and obtaining cash from issuing stock.

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What is an income statement?

The income statements of a small business, which are also often known as profit and loss statements, provide a summary of the company’s revenues and expenses over a particular time period. Companies often generate quarterly and annual income statements.

Income statements concentrate on four primary categories: gains, revenue, losses, and expenses. Bookkeepers use these categories to determine a company’s net income.

Gains and revenue

Gains include monetary profits obtained through one-time, non-business activity, such as the sale of abandoned structures or decommissioned pieces of machinery.

Both operating and non-operating revenue are included in total revenue. The core activities that generate operating revenue for a company include things like selling products. Secondary business activities, such as bank account interest, can provide a source of revenue that is separate from the primary business.

Losses and expenses

Losses can be caused by a variety of factors, including unfavorable lawsuit settlements and the sale of assets for an amount that is lower than their value.

In the same way that revenue includes earnings from both primary and secondary business operations, expenses also include these costs. Primary operations include general administration costs, cost of goods sold, and research and development.

Net income

Accountants determine a company’s net income by deducting the company’s operating expenses from its total revenue. The company will have a net profit if its revenues are greater than its operating expenses. A net loss is experienced by the company when the amount of income is less than the amount of expenses.

What is a balance sheet?

The assets and liabilities of a corporation are tallied on its balance sheet. This kind of statement offers a snapshot of the financial health of a small business at a particular point in time at a specific point in time. Bookkeepers have quick access to the numbers that pertain to the assets and liabilities of a company.

While it is common practice for businesses to generate balance sheets at the end of each quarter, individuals are free to do so whenever they see fit. A balance sheet is made up of an organization’s assets, liabilities, and the equity of its shareholders.


The value of an asset is measured in terms of its potential to increase profits while simultaneously lowering costs. Inventory, real estate, cash on hand, and accounts receivable are all kinds of things that can be considered assets. On balance sheets, assets are listed in the order of their liquidity, or the ease with which they can be consumed, sold, or converted into cash.


A corporation is said to have a liability when it owes money to another party. Liabilities can include things like employee salary, mortgage loans, income taxes, and accounts payable.

Shareholders’ equity

The amount of money that would be returned to the shareholders of a company after paying off all its obligations and selling off all its assets is known as the shareholders’ equity. Another way to think about net worth is to subtract one’s liabilities from their assets. For illustration, a business with assets worth $10,000 and liabilities at $3,000 would have shareholders’ equity totaling $7,000.

Guide on small business basic accounting

To get started with small business basic accounting, all you really need is a pencil, some paper, and a lot of patience.  However, accounting software is the way to go if you want your business to get out on the right foot.

Accounting software can make your life much simpler if you are still confused about the distinctions between a debit and a credit, as well as if you are unable to differentiate between an asset and a liability.

However, even if you are prepared to look for an accounting software application that is a good fit for your company, there are still a few other things that you need to accomplish before you can go on to that step.

Step 1 – Select a business structure

Choosing the correct business structure comes first. Choose your business structure carefully, as it will impact every aspect of your operations. There are four primary business structures: sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company (LLC), or corporation.

Step 2 – Open a bank account for the business

Even if you run your company as a sole owner, you should still consider opening a business bank account. Having a company bank account makes it much simpler to file business taxes, it helps to keep your personal and business finances distinct, and it gives you a method by which to pay your suppliers and other business partners.

Step 3 – Choose an accounting method

The cash method is the more straightforward approach. You need to record revenue and expenses only when money changes hands. The accrual method, on the other hand, acknowledges revenues at the time they are earned and expenses at the time they are incurred.  Choose carefully, because once you decide on an accounting method, you won’t be able to switch to another one without the permission of the IRS.

Step 4 – Choose the right accounting software

You may keep track of your accounting activities using spreadsheets or manual ledgers; however, why would you do so when there are so many excellent, reasonably priced, and even occasionally free accounting software available on the market? An accounting software do tasks such as performing data entry, calculating figures, monitoring performance metrics, and producing business reports automatically. After you have entered your data properly, the program will guarantee that your calculations are accurate, which will offer you with an additional level of assurance throughout tax season.

Step 5 – Set up the chart of accounts

Creating a chart of accounts for your business is a necessary step that must be taken before you can begin keeping track of any financial transactions. Your general ledger should have a list of all the different accounts that can be used to record different types of financial transactions. You need to make sure that you are aware with the five different types of accounts that will be utilized in your chart of accounts. These account categories are assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and equity.

Step 6 – Learn the accounting basics

You should start to familiarize yourself with some other accounting fundamentals after knowing the five primary types of accounts. If you are going to use accrual accounting, also known as double-entry accounting, you will need to be familiar with the accounting equation as well as debits and credits, which are the fundamental building blocks of any accounting system.

Step 7 – Setup payroll

If you do not intend to engage the services of any employees, you can skip this step. However, even if you only hire an occasional contractor, you still need to have a payroll system in place so that you can pay them. There is a wide variety of payroll software available on the market today that is tailored expressly for use by smaller businesses. The entire procedure of processing payroll might be simplified with the assistance of these software.

Step 8 – Learn how to keep track of income and expenses

The great majority of your financial dealings will revolve around your income and expenses. Your company’s success will be directly tied to your ability to successfully manage these two items.

Step 9 – Reconcile bank accounts

You should routinely and properly reconcile your bank accounts each month. A bank reconciliation not only identifies things that must be put into your general ledger but also identifies any bank errors. Yes, mistakes are made by banks too, and if you don’t catch them, they could cost you a lot of money.

Step 10 – Run financial statements

You can run your financial statements once all your transactions have been entered. To find any out-of-balance accounts, start with an unadjusted trial balance. You can also enter any adjusting entries at this point.  When you are done, run the financial statements for the month and take some time to review them to see how your company is doing.


Small business basic accounting does not have to be difficult. With a little bit of planning, even people who have never done bookkeeping or accounting before will be able to do it for their business. Whether you choose to do things by hand or use accounting software, there are a lot of accounting tools you can use. Remember that the easier you make accounting, the more time you will have to work on your business. So, take a few deep breaths, study the fundamentals, and start right away!


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